© NASA/JPL/MESSENGER

Mercury at greatest elongation west

Thu, 19 Jan 2017 at08:45 EST(69 days ago)
13:45 UTC

Dominic Ford, Editor
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The sky at

In the southern hemisphere Mercury will be well placed for observation in the dawn sky, shining brightly at mag -0.2.

From Newark (click to change) however, it will not be observable – it will reach its highest point in the sky during daytime and will be no higher than 9° above the horizon at dawn.

Mercury's orbit lies closer to the Sun than the Earth's, meaning that it always appears close to the Sun and is very difficult to observe most of the time.

It is observable only for a few days each time it reaches greatest separation from the Sun – moments referred to as greatest elongation.

These apparitions take place alternately in the morning and evening skies, depending whether Mercury lies to the east of the Sun or to the west.

When it lies to the east, it rises and sets a short time after the Sun and is visible in early evening twilight. When it lies to the west of the Sun, it rises and sets a short time before the Sun and is visible shortly before sunrise.

On this occasion, it lies 24° to the Sun's west.

Mercury in coming weeks

The key moments in this apparition of Mercury are as follows:

28 Dec 2016 13:41 EST – Mercury at inferior solar conjunction
13 Jan 2017 17:02 EST – Mercury at dichotomy
19 Jan 2017 08:45 EST – Mercury at greatest elongation west
19 Jan 2017 15:43 EST – Mercury at greatest brightness

After greatest elongation, the distance between Mercury and the Sun will decrease each night as it sinks back into the Sun's glare. The table below lists how long before sunrise Mercury will rise each night; all times are given in Newark local time.

Date Sun
sets at
Mercury
rises at
Altitude of Mercury
at sunrise
Direction of Mercury
at sunrise
12 Jan 201707:1805:4014°west
19 Jan 201707:1505:4113°west
26 Jan 201707:1005:5111°west
02 Feb 201707:0406:02west
09 Feb 201706:5706:13west
16 Feb 201706:4806:21west
23 Feb 201706:3806:26west
02 Mar 201706:2806:29-1°west
09 Mar 201706:1706:30-3°west
16 Mar 201707:0507:30-5°west
23 Mar 201706:5407:26-6°west

A graph of the angular separation of Mercury from the Sun around the time of greatest elongation is available here.

Mercury's position

The position of Mercury when it reaches greatest elongation will be:

Object Right Ascension Declination Constellation Magnitude Angular Size
Mercury 18h23m00s -22°00' Sagittarius -0.2 6.6"
Sun 20h06m -20°15' Sagittarius -26.7 32'30"

The coordinates above are given in J2000.0.

Seasonal effects

At each apparition, Mercury reaches a similar separation from the Sun – around 18–28°. This distance is set by the geometry of how big Mercury's orbit is, and how far away it is from the Earth.

Nonetheless, some times of the year are more favourable for viewing Mercury than others.

It appears most favourably in the evening sky around the time of the local spring equinox, and most favourably in the morning sky around the local autumn equinox.

These dates are reversed in the northern and southern hemispheres, such that a good apparition in one hemisphere will not be easily observable from the other.

This is comes about because Mercury always lies close to the line of the ecliptic, shown in yellow in the planetarium above. This is the line through the zodiacal constellations that the Sun follows through the year, and marks the flat plane in space in which all of the planets circle the Sun.

When Mercury rises a few hours ahead of the Sun, the altitude it reaches Mercury above the horizon before sunrise depends on two factors.

One is its angular separation from the Sun. But equally important is how steeply the line of the ecliptic is inclined to the horizon.

If Mercury is widely separated from the Sun along the ecliptic, this may not translate into a high altitude if the ecliptic meets the horizon at a very shallow angle, running almost parallel to it.

Conversely, if the ecliptic is almost perpendicular to the horizon, a much smaller separation from the Sun may place Mercury higher in the sky.

The inclination of the ecliptic plane to the horizon at Newark varies between 72° (sunrise at the autumn equinox) and 25° (sunrise at the spring equinox). On January 19, the ecliptic is inclined at 33° to the eastern dawn horizon, as shown by the yellow line in the planetarium view above, meaning that on this occasion Mercury is poorly placed for viewing from Newark.

The sky on 19 January 2017
Sunrise: 07:15
Sunset: 16:57
Twilight
from 05:39
until 18:33

21-day old moon
Age of Moon:
21 days

All times shown in EST.
Rise Culm. Set
Mercury 05:41 10:23 15:05
Venus 09:24 15:09 20:55
Moon 23:50 05:35 11:19
Mars 09:43 15:35 21:28
Jupiter 23:44 05:25 11:02
Saturn 04:48 09:30 14:12

Source

The circumstances of this event were computed using the DE405 planetary ephemeris published by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

This event was automatically generated by searching the ephemeris for planetary alignments which are of interest to amateur astronomers, and the text above was generated based on an estimate of your location.

Related news

19 Jan 2017, 08:45 ESTMercury at greatest elongation west
19 Jan 2017, 15:43 ESTMercury at greatest brightness
07 Mar 2017, 19:15 ESTMercury at superior solar conjunction
07 Mar 2017, 16:37 ESTMercury at greatest brightness

Image credit

© NASA/JPL/MESSENGER

Newark

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40.74°N
74.17°W
EDT

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