Mercury will be well placed for observation in the dawn sky, shining brightly at mag -0.5.
From Ashburn (click to change), it will be difficult to observe as it will appear no higher than 11° above the horizon. It will rise at 05:21 (EST) – 1 hour and 30 minutes before the Sun – and reach an altitude of 11° above the eastern horizon before fading from view as dawn breaks at around 06:28.
Mercury's orbit lies closer to the Sun than the Earth's, meaning that it always appears close to the Sun and is very difficult to observe most of the time.
It is observable only for a few days each time it reaches greatest separation from the Sun – moments referred to as greatest elongation.
Mercury's phase varies depending on its position relative to the Earth. When it passes between the Earth and Sun, for example, the side that is turned towards the Earth is entirely unilluminated, like a new moon.
Conversely, when it lies opposite to the Earth in its orbit, passing almost behind the Sun, it appears fully illuminated, like a full moon. However, at this time it is also at its most distant from the Earth, so it is actually fainter than at other times.
Mercury shows an intermediate half phase – called dichotomy – at roughly the same moment that it appears furthest from the Sun, at greatest elongation. The exact times of the two events may differ by a few hours, only because Mercury's orbit is not quite perfectly aligned with the ecliptic.
Mercury in coming weeks
The key moments in this apparition of Mercury are as follows:
|26 Aug 2017 16:36 EDT||– Mercury at inferior solar conjunction|
|12 Sep 2017 05:11 EDT||– Mercury at greatest elongation west|
|12 Sep 2017 23:34 EDT||– Mercury at dichotomy|
|08 Oct 2017 06:14 EDT||– Mercury at greatest brightness|
|08 Oct 2017 16:38 EDT||– Mercury at superior solar conjunction|
Over coming weeks, the distance between Mercury and the Sun will decrease each night as it sinks back into the Sun's glare. The table below lists how long before sunrise Mercury will rise each night; all times are given in Ashburn local time.
|Altitude of Mercury
|Direction of Mercury
|06 Sep 2017||06:40||05:31||11°||west|
|13 Sep 2017||06:46||05:18||16°||west|
|20 Sep 2017||06:53||05:36||13°||west|
|27 Sep 2017||06:59||06:10||9°||west|
|04 Oct 2017||07:06||06:46||3°||west|
|11 Oct 2017||07:12||07:20||-1°||west|
|18 Oct 2017||07:19||07:52||-6°||west|
|25 Oct 2017||07:27||08:22||-11°||south-west|
|01 Nov 2017||07:34||08:50||-14°||south-west|
|08 Nov 2017||06:42||08:17||-17°||south-west|
|15 Nov 2017||06:50||08:39||-19°||south-west|
A graph of the phase of Mercury is available here.
The coordinates of Mercury when it reaches dichotomy will be:
|Object||Right Ascension||Declination||Constellation||Angular Size|
The coordinates above are given in J2000.0.
|The sky on 12 September 2017|
All times shown in EDT.
Never attempt to point a pair of binoculars or a telescope at an object close to the Sun. Doing so may result in immediate and permanent blindness.
The circumstances of this event were computed using the DE405 planetary ephemeris published by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
This event was automatically generated by searching the ephemeris for planetary alignments which are of interest to amateur astronomers, and the text above was generated based on an estimate of your location.
|12 Sep 2017, 05:11 EDT||– Mercury at greatest elongation west|
|23 Nov 2017, 21:22 EST||– Mercury at greatest elongation east|
|01 Jan 2018, 19:40 EST||– Mercury at greatest elongation west|
|15 Mar 2018, 06:18 EDT||– Mercury at greatest elongation east|