© NASA/Cassini

Saturn at opposition

Dominic Ford, Editor
From the Outer Planets feed

Objects: Saturn
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The sky at

Saturn will be well placed in the sky, in the constellation Sagittarius. It will be visible for much of the night, reaching its highest point in the sky around midnight local time.

From Cambridge, it will be visible between 21:17 and 04:26. It will become accessible around 21:17, when it rises to an altitude of 9° above your south-eastern horizon. It will reach its highest point in the sky at 00:53, 26° above your southern horizon. It will become inaccessible around 04:26 when it sinks below 10° above your south-western horizon.

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Saturn opposite the Sun

This optimal positioning occurs when Saturn is almost directly opposite the Sun in the sky. Since the Sun reaches its greatest distance below the horizon at midnight, the point opposite to it is highest in the sky at the same time.

At around the same time that Saturn passes opposition, it also makes its closest approach to the Earth – termed its perigee – making it appear at its brightest and largest.

This happens because when Saturn lies opposite the Sun in the sky, the solar system is lined up so that Saturn, the Earth and the Sun form a straight line with the Earth in the middle, on the same side of the Sun as Saturn.

In practice, however, Saturn orbits much further out in the solar system than the Earth – at an average distance from the Sun of 9.54 times that of the Earth, and so its angular size does not vary much as it cycles between opposition and solar conjunction.

On this occasion, Saturn will lie at a distance of 8.99 AU, and its disk will measure 18.5 arcsec in diameter, shining at magnitude 0.1. Even at its closest approach to the Earth, however, it is not possible to distinguish it as more than a star-like point of light without the aid of a telescope.

The rings of Saturn

Saturn will be angled to show its northern hemisphere at this opposition, and the rings will inclined at an angle of 21° to our line of sight, which is almost the maximum inclination they can have. This means they will be very well presented.

The graph below shows the changing inclination of Saturn's rings over time. The black line indicates their inclination to our line of sight from the Earth. A negative angle indicates that the north pole is tipped towards us, while a positive angle indicates that we see the south pole. A angle close to zero means that Saturn's rings appear close to edge on.

The red line indicates the inclination of the rings to the Sun's line of sight to the planet. Interesting phenomena can occur when the rings are very close to edge-on, if the Sun illuminates one side of the rings, while we see the other. At such times, we see the unilluminated side of the rings.

The inclination of Saturn's rings around the time of its opposition in July 2020.

The Seeliger Effect

For a few hours around the exact moment of opposition, it may be possible to discern a marked brightening of Saturn's rings in comparison to the planet's disk, known as the Seeliger Effect.

This occurs because Saturn's rings are made of a fine sea of ice particles which are normally illuminated by the Sun at a slightly different angle from our viewing angle, so that we see some illuminated particles and some which are in the shadow of others.

At around the time of opposition, however, the ice particles are illuminated from almost exactly the same direction from which we view them, meaning that we see very few which are in shadow.

Saturn in coming weeks

Over the weeks following its opposition, Saturn will reach its highest point in the sky four minutes earlier each night, gradually receding from the pre-dawn morning sky while remaining visible in the evening sky for a few months.

A chart of the path of Saturn across the sky in 2020 can be found here, and a chart of its rising and setting times here.

The position of Saturn at the moment it passes opposition will be:

Object Right Ascension Declination Constellation Magnitude Angular Size
Saturn 20h02m00s -20°42' Sagittarius 0.1 18.5"

The coordinates above are given in J2000.0.

The sky on 20 July 2020
Twilight ends
Twilight begins

29-day old moon
Waxing Crescent


29 days old

Rise Culm. Set
Mercury 04:02 11:25 18:48
Venus 02:34 09:47 17:00
Moon 05:15 12:51 20:26
Mars 23:30 05:42 11:50
Jupiter 19:43 00:24 05:00
Saturn 20:07 00:54 05:36
All times shown in EDT.


The circumstances of this event were computed using the DE430 planetary ephemeris published by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

This event was automatically generated by searching the ephemeris for planetary alignments which are of interest to amateur astronomers, and the text above was generated based on an estimate of your location.

Related news

20 Jul 2020  –  Saturn at opposition
23 Jan 2021  –  Saturn at solar conjunction
02 Aug 2021  –  Saturn at opposition
04 Feb 2022  –  Saturn at solar conjunction

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© NASA/Cassini






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