© NASA/Galileo 1993. Pictured asteroid is 243 Ida.

Asteroid 4 Vesta at opposition

Dominic Ford, Editor
From the Asteroids feed

Objects: 4 Vesta
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The sky at

Asteroid 4 Vesta will be well placed, lying in the constellation Leo, well above the horizon for much of the night.

Regardless of your location on the Earth, 4 Vesta will reach its highest point in the sky around midnight local time.

From San Diego, it will be visible in the morning sky, becoming accessible around 19:27, when it reaches an altitude of 22° above your eastern horizon. It will then reach its highest point in the sky at 00:22, 73° above your southern horizon. It will be lost to dawn twilight around 05:12, 22° above your western horizon.

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The geometry of the alignment

This optimal positioning occurs when it makes its closest approach to the point in the sky directly opposite to the Sun – an event termed opposition. Since the Sun reaches its greatest distance below the horizon at midnight, the point opposite to it is highest in the sky at the same time.

At around the same time that 4 Vesta passes opposition, it also makes its closest approach to the Earth – termed its perigee – making it appear at its brightest in the night sky. This happens because when 4 Vesta lies opposite to the Sun in the night sky, the solar system is lined up so that 4 Vesta, the Earth and the Sun lie in a straight line with the Earth in the middle, on the same side of the Sun as 4 Vesta.

On this occasion, 4 Vesta will pass within 1.355 AU of us, reaching a peak brightness of magnitude 6.2. Nonetheless, even at its brightest, 4 Vesta is a faint object beyond the reach of the naked eye; binoculars or a telescope of moderate aperture are needed.

Finding 4 Vesta

The chart below indicates the path of 4 Vesta across the sky around the time of opposition.

It was produced using StarCharter and is available for download, either on dark background, in PNG, PDF or SVG formats, or on a light background, in PNG, PDF or SVG formats.

The position of 4 Vesta at the moment of opposition will be as follows:

Object Right Ascension Declination Constellation Magnitude
Asteroid 4 Vesta 11h20m40s 15°57'N Leo 6.2

The coordinates above are given in J2000.0.

The sky on 04 March 2021
Sunrise
06:12
Sunset
17:48
Twilight ends
19:12
Twilight begins
04:48

21-day old moon
Waning Gibbous

56%

21 days old

Planets
Rise Culm. Set
Mercury 04:56 10:17 15:37
Venus 06:06 11:44 17:22
Moon 22:56 04:28 09:50
Mars 09:48 16:50 23:51
Jupiter 05:00 10:19 15:39
Saturn 04:33 09:46 14:59
All times shown in PST.

Source

The circumstances of this event were computed from orbital elements made available by Ted Bowell of the Lowell Observatory. The conversion to geocentric coordinates was performed using the position of the Earth recorded in the DE430 ephemeris published by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

The star chart above shows the positions and magnitudes of stars as they appear in the Tycho catalogue. The data was reduced by the author and plotted using PyXPlot. A gnomonic projection of the sky has been used; celestial coordinates are indicated in the J2000.0 coordinate system.

Image credit

© NASA/Galileo 1993. Pictured asteroid is 243 Ida.

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32.72°N
117.16°W
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