Mercury will reach half phase in its Nov–Dec 2019 morning apparition. It will be shining brightly at mag -0.4.
Nov–Dec 2019 morning apparition of Mercury
|11 Nov 2019||–||Mercury at inferior solar conjunction|
|25 Nov 2019||–||Mercury at dichotomy|
|27 Nov 2019||–||Mercury at highest altitude in morning sky|
|28 Nov 2019||–||Mercury at greatest elongation west|
|10 Jan 2020||–||Mercury at superior solar conjunction|
The table below lists the altitude of Mercury at sunrise over the course of the apparition. All times are given in Ashburn local time.
|16 Nov 2019||06:54||05:59||9°||south-east||2.4||9%|
|19 Nov 2019||06:55||05:39||13°||south-east||0.8||21%|
|22 Nov 2019||07:00||05:26||16°||south-east||-0.0||36%|
|25 Nov 2019||07:02||05:19||17°||south-east||-0.4||49%|
|28 Nov 2019||07:07||05:21||18°||south-east||-0.6||60%|
|01 Dec 2019||07:09||05:27||17°||south-east||-0.6||70%|
|04 Dec 2019||07:11||05:33||16°||south-east||-0.6||77%|
|07 Dec 2019||07:13||05:42||14°||south-east||-0.6||82%|
|10 Dec 2019||07:15||05:54||13°||south-east||-0.6||86%|
|13 Dec 2019||07:18||06:02||11°||south-east||-0.6||90%|
|16 Dec 2019||07:20||06:16||10°||south-east||-0.6||92%|
|19 Dec 2019||07:23||06:26||8°||south-east||-0.6||94%|
|22 Dec 2019||07:26||06:37||7°||south-east||-0.6||96%|
|25 Dec 2019||07:28||06:47||6°||south-east||-0.7||97%|
Mercury will brighten rapidly at the start of its morning apparition as it emerges from inferior conjunction. Prior to its apparition, it passed between the Earth and Sun, at which time it had its unilluminated side turned towards the Earth and so appeared as a thin, barely illuminated crescent. As the apparition proceeds, this crescent waxes and becomes gibbous.
Since Mercury can only ever be observed in twilight, it is particularly difficult to find when it is in a thin crescent phase. Thus, it will be significantly easier to see in the days after it reaches its highest point in the sky – when it will show a gibbous phase – than in the days beforehand.
Altitude of Mercury at sunrise
A graph of the phase of Mercury is available here.
Apparitions of Mercury
|23 Jun 2019||–||Evening apparition|
|09 Aug 2019||–||Morning apparition|
|19 Oct 2019||–||Evening apparition|
|28 Nov 2019||–||Morning apparition|
|10 Feb 2020||–||Evening apparition|
|23 Mar 2020||–||Morning apparition|
|04 Jun 2020||–||Evening apparition|
Mercury's orbit lies closer to the Sun than the Earth's, meaning that it always appears close to the Sun and is lost in the Sun's glare much of the time.
It is observable for only a few weeks each time it reaches greatest separation from the Sun – moments referred to as greatest elongation. These apparitions repeat roughly once every 3–4 months.
Mercury's phase varies depending on its position relative to the Earth. When it passes between the Earth and Sun, for example, the side that is turned towards the Earth is entirely unilluminated, like a new moon.
Conversely, when it lies opposite to the Earth in its orbit, passing almost behind the Sun, it appears fully illuminated, like a full moon. However, at this time it is also at its most distant from the Earth, so it is actually fainter than at other times.
Mercury shows an intermediate half phase – called dichotomy – at roughly the same moment that it appears furthest from the Sun, at greatest elongation. The exact times of the two events may differ by a few days, only because Mercury's orbit is not quite perfectly aligned with the ecliptic.
The coordinates of Mercury when it reaches dichotomy will be:
|Object||Right Ascension||Declination||Constellation||Angular Size|
The coordinates above are given in J2000.0.
|The sky on 25 November 2019|
28 days old
All times shown in EST.
Never attempt to point a pair of binoculars or a telescope at an object close to the Sun. Doing so may result in immediate and permanent blindness.
The circumstances of this event were computed using the DE430 planetary ephemeris published by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
This event was automatically generated by searching the ephemeris for planetary alignments which are of interest to amateur astronomers, and the text above was generated based on an estimate of your location.
|11 Nov 2019||– Transit of Mercury|
|27 Nov 2019||– Mercury at highest altitude in morning sky|
|28 Nov 2019||– Mercury at greatest elongation west|
|10 Feb 2020||– Mercury at highest altitude in evening sky|